Longitudinal Stress in Buried Pipelines near Bends or End Caps

Accurate estimation of the longitudinal stress is frequently required, such as during the engineering critical assessment (ECA) of girth welds or the integrity analysis of pipelines including defects with considerable circumferential extension. At Kiefner and Associates, Inc. (Kiefner) (a Pipeline Engineering Consultancy company, and part of the Applus+ Group), we regularly address questions posed by [...]